Terrestrial biomes are defined by temperature and precipitation.

  1. Tropical forest thrives in high temperatures and abundant rain.

  2. Desert exists in hot and dry areas.

  3. Savanna is dominated by grass in tropical areas with moderate rainfall.

  4. Grassland is dominated by grass in temperate areas with moderate rainfall.

  5. Deciduous forest occurs in temperate areas with sufficient rain to support trees; a cold season causes trees to shed leaves.

  6. Chaparral (known as Mediterranean in Europe) is found in savanna-like coastal areas where winter rains support shrubs.

  7. Coniferous forest exists in cold areas that receive enough precipitation to support evergreen trees.

  8. Tundra is found in colder areas where the soil below 1 meter is permanently frozen into permafrost, and only short vegetation can grow.

  9. Polar ice is found near the poles with almost no precipitation. Freshwater is scarce; life is limited to coastal areas and its oxygen-rich cold waters.