Females usually choose their mates; this is intersexual selection.
- Elaborate courtship rituals among the Western Grebe ensure his commitment.
- Marmot males demonstrate reproductive fitness by controlling resources.
- A male may bring an item of value - a "nuptial gift" - as a
of his reproductive
- Fancy and bright plumage
demonstrates a male's fitness; females
are usually less colorful.
Exceptions occur when the male has a heavy